Menu
  • top_link_rfq
  • top_link_snp
Your products, precision machined here
by engineers who care
CONTACT US HOW TO WORK WITH US

How to work with us

If you have any questions welcome to contact us

Case Study

  Perpetual motion machine remains a dream unattainable.       As a manufacturer, APPORO has quite an understanding of design of machine tools and the way they work. We figure how to optimize our CNC manufacturing procedures and to enhance the efficiency all the time, so as to reduce the manufacturing costs. Hence, when knowing there is so-called machine design which could conserve energy or enhance efficiency, APPORO surely looks into its operating principle in details and evaluates if it matches its advertised performance. Not surprisingly, the actual test result often falls short. Speaking of that, several well-known scams in history also adopted this kind of conceptual design, claiming to have created perpetual motion machine(*Ref) to defraud.     What is a Perpetual Motion Machine?   Perpetual motion machine refers to a machine that does motions constantly and works without energy input. There are two major categories in terms of perpetual motion machine. The first kind violates the first law of thermodynamics as it does work without energy sources. The first law of thermodynamics states conservation of energy, indicating the total energy stays constant in an isolated system, and that no extra energy emerges in that system. Any machine that claims to produce energy from nowhere falls into this category.   While the first kind of perpetual motion machine was proved to be impossible, discussions about the second kind of perpetual motion machine were put on table right away. Its design makes use of the energy outside of the isolated system such as heat and wind energy, striking the balance so that the system could operate perpetually. However, energy would eventually be exhausted from the working machines. The just balance could only be reached if there is energy input, so it still failed to forever motion without additional energy.     After Perpetual Motion Machine   The idea of perpetual motion machine has existed for centuries. Based on the scientific understanding nowadays, it remains a dream unattainable. However, there are still a lot of “scientists” engaged in the invention of perpetual motion machine, one after another. Basically these “scientists” are:   1.) Rookies: They barely know a thing about the concept of perpetual motion machine. They often mistake certain device for perpetual machine, which, in fact are device that absorb energy in the dark. For example, human body.   2.) Genuine scientists: They hold the firm belief that science has to be challenged all the time, thinking that thermodynamics could also be wrong or should be revised, as Newton’s law of motion was revised by theory of relativity quantum mechanics. It is never easy to overthrow a law, but their attitudes are admirable. These people are the most likely to invent perpetual motion machine.   3.) Fraud: Even in this era of information explosion, we can still see those who claim to have invented perpetual motion machine. They use sophisticated physics terms and fancy words to convince other to take their scientific results and defraud them of investment. But, until now, all perpetual motion machines are proved to be fraudulent.     Will The Dream Come True?   Perpetual motion machine has always been the dream in the field of science. Just like alchemy for development of chemicals, as many efforts are put into this probably impossible techniques, many relevant techniques are then created. As a pragmatic CNC manufacturer, although we might not believe the concept perpetual motion machine would be ever realized, we could not deny the fact that the progress of science and mechanic design derives from the constant efforts of researchers. Holding the same attitude, APPORO will non-stop updates and introduces new techniques and shares more case studies, hoping to have in depth academic exchange and to contribute to the manufacturing field.     *Ref: Learn more about Perpetual motion. ...
index_case_study_view_more
It is inevitable to have burrs on the cutting or hole-drilling edge during the milling while milling parts. The size of burr is usually relevant to tool wear condition, feeding and rotary speed, material properties, cutting fluid, etc. The left burrs on the workpiece not only could get operatives scrapped, but also could lead the dimensions exceeding the tolerance. Therefore, CNC manufacturers all regard burrs as a huge enemy against workpiece quality. Previously, APPORO shared a case study on deburring the die casting parts. In that case, burrs formed on account of reamer wearing, and after APPORO promptly renewed the reamers, conducted a full inspection, and removed the burrs, we coped with the quality crisis.   Most burrs on the end/edge of the parts could be removed on the CNC machine through chamfering(*Ref). However, some have to be manually removed as the burrs are where the machine can hardly perform, resulting in the high overall manufacturing cost. If you ever encounter the above situation, take a look at two concrete cases below. See how APPORO make excellent use of decades of experience in CNC manufacturing to overcome all kinds of challenges.     Across Milling Burrs   Basically, milling is about cutting round bar materials into required ID/OD dimensions with high-speed rotary tools. If we are to mill flat surface onto the cylindrical side of round bar materials, the CNC milling machine should be installed with driven tool holders, where face milling cutters are mounted. When it comes to the step of face milling on the side, the round bar stops spinning and aligns the face milling cutter with the part to be machined. Then, the milling cutter starts spinning in right/down or left/right direction to side mill the workpieces, until the depth and width across flats are as required.     We use two cutters to precisely and quickly face mill the rod, but highly possible to cause burrs at the end of the flat surface.       From the poppet stem photo above, the head of this OD 8.0 mm workpiece features 7.0 mm width across flats. In other words, the surface has to be 0.5 mm in-depth on one side. First, APPORO used two cutters with 7.0 mm space in-between to face mill the 8.0 mm OD with symmetry from the end of the workpiece, in the same direction with the axis. The processing was precise and quick, but highly possible to cause burrs at the end of the flat surface, which was also around the edge of finish part of the workpiece. As there were not sufficient tool holders in that CNC lathe machine, it was impossible to remove the burrs on the machine. In that way, APPORO could only manually remove the burrs with a pneumatic deburring tool. However, the inconsistent force exertion led to the uneven chamfers and the disqualification.     The inconsistent force exertion led to the uneven chamfers marked by red arrows. The undercut marked by red circle is very rough due to the fact that the cutting tool is worn out.       When APPORO reviewed all the milling process, we decided to substitute a better CNC lathe machine with more functions, installing face milling tools in its driven tool holders on the side. So, we can machine the 7.0 mm across flats directly. When the 0.5 mm deep surface is completed on one side, the C axis of the lathe machine rotates by 180 degrees and machines 0.5 mm deep surface with an end mill. In the following, APPORO uses the chamfering tool to remove the burrs from the four edges. After this adjustment, APPORO stays away from the risk of inconsistent force exertion of manual deburring and enhances the production efficiency.     To mill the across flats and remove the burrs directly on a powerful CNC lathe machine.       Burrs from Hole Drilling on Slopes   Generally, after hole drilling, noticeable burrs formed around the edge of the exit surface. If there is still enough space around the hole, chamfering to deburr is still available. However, if the exit surface is not perpendicular to the hole, meaning that the exit surface is a slope or curve, chamfering is not an option to deburr. Here are some alternative plans we can adopt:   1.) Blast Using the momentum of the high-pressure gas to strike the surface of the workpiece. Available to polish the surface and deburr with evenness and efficiency. However, after blasting the surface could turn slightly matte.   2.) Tumble The tumble theory applied to have tooling rub against the workpiece with high frequency. Available to polish the surface and deburr with evenness and efficiency. Unavailable for overlong/overweight workpiece or workpiece with external thread.   3.) The universal deburring tool A unique chamfer tool with its cutter and spring attached. It allows removing the burrs around the edge on both ends at a time. Unavailable for hole under 3mm ID.   Can’t figure out how to deal with the nightmare of burrs? It is time to contact APPORO now. APPORO is going to help you overcome all the problems in manufacturing, based on our experience for decades in this field!   *Ref: Learn more about Chamfering.  ...
index_case_study_view_more
The trade war between China and the US has been constantly escalated, which draws opposite sides of opinions from experts in all fields. On one side, many think tariffs limit the benefits of free trade, raising the cost of living, and failing to bring positive effects on the manufacturing in the US. On the contrary, the others believe the trade war is beneficial for the US economy, as it brings back more job opportunities of manufacturing to the US. No matter what the future will be like, we have to put the emphasis on currently the two most impactful tariffs: a 25 percent tax on steel and 10 percent tax on aluminum. The impacts of them could be everywhere, starting from Coke, vehicles to industrial equipment and other high-end manufacturing.     Tariff Avoidance Strategies   In the aspect of the manufacturing industry in Taiwan, the trade war leads to the rise of all kinds of costs. For example, materials, manufacturing, and sales are all influenced, directly or indirectly. Here are the strategies most corporations adopt:   1.) Reduce the cost of supply chain   2.)Switch to another supplier with lower cost   3.) Revise design and change manufacturing way to cut down manufacturing cost, and lead in industry 4.0 with automation (and unmanned factory)   4.) Stand still and stick to the current operating strategy, while bearing the enormous pressure of continuing raising costs during the trade war.     As the trade war continues, although it does not force corporations to shift back their massive production to the US, due to the fact that the labor cost in the US is still higher than it in China or countries oversea. Gradually, it apparently accelerates the speed of which corporations move out their production from China. Since 2019, many CNC manufacturers in Taiwan have indeed received orders from China, most of which are from the purchasing offices in China. These purchasing offices are assigned by their parent companies in the US tor purchase from Taiwan or Southeast Asian countries. Although in the first half of year the accumulated exports of Taiwan slightly dropped, however, in certain industries such as IT industry the accumulated exports are constantly growing.         Taiwan's exports highly rely on China market but also influenced by tariffs.   (Ref: https://cus93.trade.gov.tw/)     In the trading storm between these two great and conflicting countries, CNC manufacturers in Taiwan might benefit from the transferred order temporarily, in the meantime, we should also figure out how to prevent ourselves from being dragged into the storm next time.  ...
index_case_study_view_more
Unified National is a standard commonly used by the United States and Canada in for Inch Screw Threads where the flanks of the V have an angle of 60° to each other. At first, UN(*Ref) only included four basic categories: UNC, UNF, UNEF, UNS, and then UNJ and UNR were gradually added to the standard.     UN Thread Classes   According to UN standard, there are three different classes (1A, 2A, and 3A) when it comes to external threads, and for internal threads there are three as well (1B, 2B, and 3B).   1A and 1B: Refers to the thread fitting with the most loose tolerance, where there is a huge allowance. This class of thread fit is applicable to easy assembly and disassembly.   2A and 2B: The major class in the industrial and commercial applications, such as machine screws and fasteners. This class of thread fit is interchangeable and stable in regard to quality and assembly.   3A and 3B: Applied to commercial products with high quality, this class of thread fit requires compact assembly with an extremely small allowance. Therefore, 3A/3B thread fitting is usually seen in crucial design with safety requirement in commercial or aerospace industry products.     The UNJF-3A adjustable thread gauge is with an extremely small allowance.     As for external threads, the tolerance of 1A class thread fitting is larger than it of 2A class fitting by 50%, and by 75% than it of 3A class fitting. Samely, for internal threads, the tolerance of 1B class fitting is larger than it of 2B class fitting by 50%, and by 75% than it of 3B class fitting. Taking the 5/16”-18 UNJ-3B thread as an example to show how to read UN thread specification, the 5/16” stands for the major diameter, the 18 UNJ suggests that there are 18 threads per inch in the UNJ threads, and the 3B refers to the finest class of the UNJ internal threads.     Trivia about lathe UNJ threading   In the following, APPORO is going to introduce UNJ threads. Initially released December 1965, the military specification MIL-S-8879 is mainly applied to aerospace fasteners. There are internal thread and external thread specifications when it comes to UNJ threads, which based on the pitch can be categorized into UNJC, UNJF, UNJEF, and UNJS. UNJ threads are different from UN threads in the respects below:   1.) external threads: The roots of regular UN threads will be V shape bottoming, while the roots of UNJ thread are strictly specified to be semicircular bottoming. This kind of circular roots can slow down the wear rate of sharp cuts during processing and increase the fatigue strength of threads.     2.) internal threads: In order to assemble with the semicircular bottoming of external thread, the minor diameter of an UNJ internal thread will be slightly larger than it of a regular UN internal thread. As internal threads are rather unlikely to break from the internal stress, there is no specifications for the major diameter roots of UNJ internal threads to be semicircular bottoming.     3.) The symbol for all UN external threads is “A”, while for all UN internal threads is “B”. In addition, for J series threads usually the required thread class is 3A/3B, which is the highest fit, and the second most common thread class for J series threads is 2A/2B. On the other hand, for UN threads the thread class is commonly 2A/2B.         In the process of lathing UNJ external threads, sharp cuts should be equipped according to the specified root radius (between 0.15011 pitch and 0.18042 pitch), so that the roots of the external threads could be smooth semicircles in a row in shape. As the roots of an external UNJ thread are special semicircles in shape, its minor diameter is slightly larger than it of a regular external UN thread, and that is why it could not match other Inch Screw Threads of the same specifications. For example, if we drive an ⅜”-16 UNC nut with an ⅜”-16 UNJ screw, the minor diameters of these two would interfere with each other, resulting in the assembly failure. However, using a larger tapper to manufacture the internal thread of the ⅜”-16 UNC nut could prevent the minor diameters from interfering and avoid other assembly problems.     On the contrary, if we would like to drive an internal UNJ thread with a regular external UN thread, since there is no specifications about the major roots of an internal UNJ thread being semicircles in shape, basically an internal UNJ thread could match an external UN thread of same specifications. The difference between an internal UNJ thread and an external UN thread is that the minor diameter of an internal UNJ thread, as known as the size of its tap-drill hole, is larger; therefore, the minor diameter of the internal UNJ threads could match the semicircular shape external roots of the external UNJ threads. For instance, under some special circumstances, there will not be any problems driving an ⅜”-16 UNJ nut with an ⅜”-16 UNC screw.     In comparison with hundreds of thousands of thread specifications and applications, thread manufacturing and inspection are rather simple. However, their importance is often underestimated, leading to assembly failure and possibly affecting the overall product equality. Find yourselves a CNC expert with thread manufacturing proficiency and experience like APPORO so that the quality of your products are guaranteed!       *Ref: Learn more about Unified Thread Standard  ...
index_case_study_view_more
    To use NO GO of the standard thread gauge for the inspection criterion for threads before plating. After plating, the threads have to pass the standard thread gauge inspections.       How to Control the Thread Size Before Plating?   As it is mentioned previously, the goal of OD control can be easily reached under stable CNC processing. Generally, after CNC processing, the threads of a non-plated component have to pass the thread gauge inspection so as to pass the QC inspection. Nevertheless, for components that need to undergo plating process, the manufacturing and inspection procedures will be different from the former. According to the requirement of our Swiss dental equipment supplier client, APPORO has to be discreet than ever for inspections. See the examples below:   Based on the required plating film thickness, APPORO has to leave some room for it during CNC processing, and use the pre-plated thread gauges for inspections. See the photo below. If the required plating film thickness is 1-3um, the major, pitch, and minor diameters should all be +0.02/-0mm larger than the standard dimensions when manufacturing the internal thread M13.2x0.3-6H. Then, the threads need to pass the inspections of the enlarged customized M13.2x0.3-6H +0.02/-0mm plug gauge before plating. After plating, the internal threads need to pass the inspections of a standard M13.2x0.3-6H plug gauge. Once they pass the inspection, they can be approved for shipment. If there is an external thread on the plated component, after CNC processing, the pre-plated ring gauge inspection will be necessary. And then, the inspection of a standard ring gauge should then be conducted.     What we can do without pre-plated gauges?   However, the customized pre-plated plug/ring gauges are all expensive, which are only needed for components that demand extremely high precision, but not for all components. With the long time CNC manufacturing experience, APPORO suggests to use NO GO of the standard thread gauge for the inspection criterion for threads before plating. That is, the threads could perfectly screw in the NO GO of the standard thread gauge without loosing. After plating, the threads have to pass the standard thread gauge inspections, a.k.a. GO and NO GO inspections.     This inspection is more available for components with plating film under 5um thickness. For components with plating film over 5um thickness, as its plating is for anti-corrosion purpose, and the precision requirement of it is usually lower. Even the ready made standard screws and nuts can be the inspection tools. Or, before plating the threads should be able to screw in the NO GO of the standard thread gauge but slightly loose. And then, the threads should pass the GO and NO GO inspections after plating.     Plating and thread making are common techniques when speaking of CNC manufacturing components. Before and after different procedures, the concern will also be different. APPORO has devoted long time and and much efforts to CNC processing techniques, systematically learning from the processing experience in this field and turning it into application to increase the manufacturing efficiency and yield rates. Should you have any technical questions relevant to controlling size before/after plating, do not hesitate to contact us.     Learn more about thread gauge measurement:   Thread Gauge for instant measurement ...
index_case_study_view_more
There are numerous items in our daily lives that need threads for assembly and secure. In the applications of some precision industries, the precision of thread is highly relevant to the smoothness of component assembly, so rigorous manufacturing and inspection are necessary. Regarding manufacturing threads, previously we publish an article about it in details, where you can select your best ways for manufacturing depending on materials, amount, and precision. We will also talk about how to manufacture pre-plated thread later in this article.     How to inspect the threads?   As you can choose the most appropriate ways to manufacture threads depending on the needs, you can also customize the thread inspection based on the precision, functionality, and so on. Generally speaking, if tolerance and the intensity of threads are not really the concern, ready made bolts and nuts are available for shop-floor inspections. When the nuts/bolts successfully run onto/into their counterparts, they pass the shop-floor inspections. But if tolerance and the intensity of threads are the concern, advanced inspection methods such as thread gauges, 3-wire method, micrometer, vernier caliper, projector and coordinate measuring machines, can be used to measure the threads accurately. Regarding the basic introduction about thread inspections, you can take a look at the previous case study from APPORO.   In the extremely rigorous precision industry, the design thinking ranging from purpose, materials, manufacturing, post-manufacturing, to even packaging are taken seriously, so as to ensure the quality of products during mass production and the various functionality. Take the design thinking of one of APPORO’s clients, the Swiss dental equipment supplier for example. The handheld dental equipment have to be comfortable for long-term use, able to prevent from occupational injury, and conforming with hand ergonomics. Therefore, details like size and the design of center of weight are highly valued.     What should we learn about pre-plated part?   APPORO is mainly in charge of the supply of medical grade stainless and brass components manufactured on CNC lathe. Besides, if there is cosmetic or anti-corrosion purpose for brass components, nickel or chrome plating will be added as surface treatment. In general, the film thickness of plating and its anti-corrosion ability are positively correlated. However, when it comes to the dental equipment, the anti-corrosion ability is not the a priority concern. Instead, what really matters is that the dimensions of the components are still within the tolerance after plating, to make sure the components are in a good assembly condition and function.   For instance, after 1-3um nickel plating, the outside diameter a cylinder brass component and its tolerance should be 9.50 +/-0.02mm. In practice, we manufacture the OD 10.0mm round rod materials into OD 9.48-9.50mm. With nickel plating which requires 1-3um thickness, the OD of the plated products could be within 9.50 +/-0.02mm.       Detailed instruction of pre-plated OD manufacturing is usually shown on the professional CAD drawing.       Learn more: How to Manufacture Pre-Plated Thread (Part 1)   ...
index_case_study_view_more
The definition of a thread is a spiral surrounded ridge structure with surrounding spirals in the round hole or outside of the cylinder. In terms of external threads, the peak of a thread ridge constitutes the major diameter, while the base of a thread ridge the minor. For internal threads, it is opposite. Besides, between major diameter and minor diameter, there is a pitch diameter, as known as an effective diameter whether it is an external thread or an internal thread. The purpose of the pitch diameter is to see if the thread could assemble with its matching thread successfully. If so, the distance between thread flanks will be equal. Because a pitch diameter is crucial to the assembly of the threaded parts, we generally use Three Wire Method or thread gauges for checkups.      Here, let’s discuss the common methods of producing internal and external threads respectively during CNC manufacturing process:   Internal Thread   1.) Thread tapping   Usually refers to taper/second/bottoming three steps thread tapping. It uses a thread tap to cut the inner hole into an internal spiral surrounding the ridge. During the manufacturing process, cutting fluid has to be constantly filled in to lower down the temperature and to help residue removal. Applicable when the material is hard or brittle.   2.) Fluteless tapping   Compared with thread tapping which uses cutting to remove residue to process with the internal spiral, this method adopts thread tapping and then squeezes to form the internal spirals after drilling the pilot hole. Check out our previous case study for your reference. Applicable to the thread tapping of aluminum or brass made parts of which the threads are with better strength and stability.   3.) Internal threading tool   Identical to thread tapping that internal threading tool is also a method using cutting to process the thread. Internal threading tool has its advantage that it is able to maximize the effective thread hole depth of the blind hole. The limitation of the internal thread tool is that it is unable to process the threaded hole with too small inside diameter. Usually, it is recommended to use thread tapping for threads smaller than M5.       Due to the incomplete residue removal of thread tapping process, the tapping breaks in M2 blind hole of the aluminum alloy component. Using fluteless tapping could be an alternative here.       External thread   1.) Thread rolling   Using cold forging to shape the external threads, this method is applicable to ductile materials. Before forming, the outside diameter of the component needs to be processed into the pitch of the thread. After forming, thread will be complete, precise, cosmetic with high intensity. This forming theory also applies to outside diameter knurling. Take a look at APPORO’s previous case study.   2.) External threading tool   Using cutting to remove the residue to process the external spiral. Cutting fluid needs to be added to help lower down the temperature and remove residue. Applicable to ductile and brittle materials.   3.) External thread tapping die   A disc-shaped external thread cutting tool. To use the external thread tapping die, the outside diameter of the round bar material needs to be slightly smaller than the major diameter of the external thread tapping die. Also, chamfer at the end of the round bar material will help the process of the external threading die. Using external thread tapping die to produce threads is more efficient, precise, while the tapping die costs more and is more applicable to threads with smaller outside diameter and components shaped like bearing shafts.       The low carbon steel component is a piece of demonstrative equipment for tensile force test. Concerning that only with high intensity can threads pass the destructive test, thread rolling is adopted for forming process.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
Stamping is a manufacturing method which shapes sheet materials rapidly through procedures like shearing, blanking and bending. Stamping features the precise, mass, economic and effective production that it can produce fast and repetitively. We will talk about the difference between regular stamping die and fine blanking press later. Before, APPORO also shared a case study on progressive stamping die here: https://www.apporo-cnc.com/news_detail.php?menu_s=400&sn=52&page=0   The cut edge of a finished product of regular stamping die is usually rough and deformed with obvious cracks, and of parts with more thickness, this condition becomes more apparent. This happens because when regular stamping dies function, they push the punches to bend and cut the materials, and then remove the finished cut part or waste materials from the sheet materials. If there is a need for precise assembly on the cut edge, a secondary processing work will then be inevitable to fix the cut edge. Otherwise, if there is no need for the precise assembly or cosmetic purpose on the cut edge, regular stamping dies will be a utility option for mass production.     How to reduce the cost of production? Instead of using poor-quality materials, look for advanced production techniques!       For example, the picture below is a counterweight part of a measuring device. As the counterweight part is not for cosmetic purpose and its cut edge is not for assembly, it is appropriate to use regular stamping dies to mass produce.     The counterweight part is made of SPHC materials with 10mm thickness. Manufactured with regular stamping dies, the cut edge of the part is rough with the bend and deformation.       Fine Blanking Press    Fine blanking press provides parts with the smooth and vertical cut edge with precise dimension tolerance. Compared with regular stamping dies, the design of dies of fine blanking press has many differences. Take the blanking dies for fine blanking press as an example. There will be V-shaped convex rings designed around the upper stamping plate near the fringe of the cut edge. While blanking, the upper and lower plates will clamp the parts. After that, the blanking punches will fall to cut the sheet materials. Meanwhile, there will be ejectors same size of the blanking punches with counter-pressure below to withstand the sheet materials upward, ensuring that the cut edge of the sheet materials will not bend and deform after cut. Generally speaking, the width of the cracks between the blanking punches of fine blanking press and the upper/lower plates will roughly be 0.5% as much thickness of the sheet materials. That is almost 1/10 as much width of the cracks of traditional stamping dies, so as to prevent the cut edge from tearing.     The pole piece is made of SPHC materials with 6mm thickness. Manufactured with fine blanking press, the cut edge of the part are smooth and vertical, which is not second to the quality manufactured with milling or laser cutting.       With the numerous features above, fine blanking press dies are quite suitable for manufacturing 2-dimensional parts. Also, when it comes to mass production, fine blanking press has an advantage in its low cost compared to CNC milling and laser cutting. As what is stated above, if we use CNC milling for 2-dimensional parts with precise assembly and cosmetic purposes, the parts will have high precision but with high manufacturing cost and low efficiency. If we use laser cutting, although the manufacturing cost is low and the efficiency is high, the dimension precision is lower, only +/-0.2mm tolerances. Besides, it is easy to have burned marks, sharp edges, and burrs on the cut edge when we use laser cutting, so we will need secondary processing to reach enough precision and cosmetic requirements, and the manufacturing costs and procedures will then increase. If you plan to cut down the manufacturing cost, increase the manufacturing efficiency, and have the needs of precise assembly and cosmetic appearance, take fine blanking press into consideration for your projects.   Learn more about stamping: Progressive Stamping Mold: Spacing Limitation ...
index_case_study_view_more
      Generally speaking, when it comes to deciding the thickness of sheet materials, the unevenness is often a concern. It then becomes necessary for the sheet materials to have additional thickness, so that we can machine the materials to the required dimensions and at the same time ensure the accuracy of the reference surface and the relative dimensions. Whether the sheet materials are rolled metals or extruded plastics, they all need molds for manufacturing purpose. However, mold precision goes down with time, which could lead to the poor quality of the sheet material surface, as well as the uneven material thickness.         Case Study on Uneven Sheet Materials   Recently, APPORO machined a batch of panels by milling, of which mostly are Eurorack & Modular Synthesizers, and delivered them to our Japanese customer. After assembling the panels, they found out the assembly acrylic plates were not completely coplanar with the panels, and turned to APPORO for solutions. APPORO digged into the situation and then figured out it was due to the uneven thickness of the acrylic plates, which resulted in the height gap between the metal panels and the acrylic plates.           The assembly acrylic plates were not completely coplanar with the panels due to uneven thickness.       How We Solve Unevenness?   The panels are 1.6mm thickness steel plates with drilled holes, milled grooves, and after powder coating. While the acrylic plates are 3.0mm thickness amber transparent acrylic, of which the outer areas were to milled into 1.4mm in height. Usually, the rest areas with extra 1.6mm lump of the acrylic plates could perfectly match the steel panels. However, only few suppliers provide amber transparent acrylic, and therefore the quality and precision of the molds are not satisfying. Consequently, those so-called materials with 3.0mm thickness are actually with thickness around 2.6-3.2mm, which are of considerably unstable quality. What’s more, even we can find the inconsistent thickness across one plate. After the discussion, our customer agreed to accept the panels with the 1.5-1.8mm gap between the unmilled and the milled surfaces. So, APPORO offered the solutions below for this problem:     1.) Cut the materials into plates from the 3.0mm thickness acrylic sheet materials. Then, checked the thickness of every sheet material, and eliminated the materials with thickness less than 2.70mm and over 3.0mm.   2.) Milled the parts into 1.2mm in height, with at least 1.5mm to 1.8mm lump on the top. So, after the assembly the acrylic sheet might be 0.1mm lower than the panel surface, which could still meet the assembly requirement of the customer.         Finally, the technical team of APPORO conquered the difficulties in production, assembly, and etc., helping our customer deal with the tricky situation. Again, APPORO won the trust of our customer and also the opportunities of further cooperation. If you are undergoing similar problems during design or assembly process, send us an email for the technical discussion with APPORO. APPORO will assist you of advancing in the product design.               Learn more about the importance of design in CNC manufacturing:     Design Matters (Part 1) - Shrinkage   Design Matters (Part 2) - Coating   Design Matters (Part 3) - Warping ...
index_case_study_view_more
  We probably all heard about this old saying in our lives: “To err is human, to forgive divine.” Of course we are not going to talk about making mistakes and forgiving people here. It is that the saying perfectly matches the topic we are about to discuss this time: burr and deburr. A burr refers to a small piece of material left on the part after processing. No matter what manufacturing method we are using, burrs sometimes are inevitable. Take die casting parts for example, burrs are likely to form on the shut-off surface. Besides, drilling can also result in burrs around the hole.          Why we have to remove the burr?   Even though it is small, a burr can possibly result in functionality problem of a workpiece, assembly failure, and even injury of assembly operators or customers. Especially for some parts the surface is extremely critical, burrs will not be allowed. In that way, deburring process will be necessary.  Therefore, how to remove the burrs without harming the functionality of the parts then reflects the techniques of a manufacturer.         Generally, there are 5 kinds of different deburring methods: manual, electrochemical, thermal energy, cryogenic, and mechanical. Among these 5 methods, manual deburring is most common process as it is more cost-effective. Here, APPORO has a case study on manually deburring the die casting parts.         Case study on deburring the die casting parts       There is a zinc die casting project that APPORO has been cooperating with one customer on for several years. According to the drawing of this item, there is a hole with slope end on the shut-off surface, so this design increases the possibility of having burrs on its edge. Because APPORO already noticed that situation, when we moved to the mass production process, we always examined every part carefully and removed the burrs on it. The customer has always been content with the quality all this time.         Burrs were aroound the end of the hole       However, recently the customer placed an order of these zinc die casting parts again. After the die casting process, we used tumbling to remove the burrs, and then reamed the parts so the dimensions could be within the tolerance. However, when we were inspecting the parts, we found out that the parts were still with burrs. Because the burrs were around the end of the hole, we knew the root cause was that the reamer had already worn down. As a result, we changed the reamer instantly and deburr the parts again by chamfering. The situation was thus well solved. Of course, there was no influence on the quality of these zinc die casting parts. And, eventually, our customer was satisfied with them. APPORO pays attention to every trivial detail, so we can always offer the best quality to our customers.           Are you looking for a reliable manufacturer that can help produce your parts without burrs? No matter what needs you have, APPORO will strive to meet your expectations. Contact APPORO for a free project review and get a RFQ today!     If you haven’t had the drawing for your project, you can also learn more about: How to Make Your Own CAD Drawing?  ...
index_case_study_view_more
Undoubtedly, part warping is a nightmare for both manufacturers and customers. It can affect the functionality of a part or lead to assembly failure. Generally, part warping is due to residual stress, which can be highly relevant to the choice of materials, dimensions of the part, and manufacturing conditions.       Warped part is mainly caused by the residue stress of the material     As we discussed in Effects of CNC Machining on Part Distortion, there are some tips to minimize the risk of warping:   1.) Lower the length to thickness ratio of the part design to be less than 10:1.   2.) Pre-heat treat the metal part prior to manufacture for stress relief.   3.) Choose the size of the cutters carefully, because the distortion scale of the workpieces will be directly proportional to the cutter size, given that feed, speed, depth of cut and material removal rates are the same.   4.) Adopt WEDM (Wire Electrical Discharge Machining) for production as it imposes nearly no stress on metal parts.   However, sometimes the design does not allow us to take these preventive actions. In that way, warping will be inevitable, and corrective actions will be necessary. Among all the corrective actions, straightening is a commonly used method. Apart from straightening the parts, it’s also crucial to have a consensus with the customer about the inspection methodology, so as to prevent further conflicts. See the case study below to get to know more about warping and how APPORO fixes this situation.     Case Study on Warping Recently, one of our customers turned to us because of their warped parts. The distance .100" +/-.002" (.098" - .102") controls the depth between one surface in the midst of the parts, let’s say surface A, and the top of the tab at the end of the part. However, the parts were found out of tolerance as much as .015" - .025", which was too high. The actual measurement was .075" - .085". The customer thus looked for APPORO's assistance to fix this problem.   The issue with the parts is a direct resultant of the parts not being flat in relation to surface A. To dig into the problem, we had a part sitting on surface A. Then, we set an indicator to zero on the top of part. Finally, we had the indicator way down the part and the part raises .023" at the end of the part.     Part sitting on surface A         The above photo shows the difference in heights at the tips. Approved part is on the right.       Accordingly to our finding, the warp is mainly caused by the residue stress of the material which is inevitable situation. However, it can be fixed by straightening.   As for the inspection method on .100 +/-.002, the area of surface A is very small compared to whole part. Every tiny particle or burr around surface A shall be exactly removed prior to inspection, or it could result in giant dimensions variation on the other side of this part.     Alternative Inspection Methodology Actually, to clamp the parts via surface A, 100% inspection would be definitely time consuming. For better efficient inspection, we proposed an alternative inspection methodology as below: 1.) We would use bottom surface as the base, instead of surface A. After straightening, the flatness of bottom surface could be within .002". Then, we put the bottom surface of part upside down on the granite surface plate. 2.) APPORO would manufacture customized inspection aids as block gauges to inspect the height of surface A and .100” +/-.002” surface.     Conclusion Warping is usually inevitable, especially when we are machining part designed with ratio of length to thickness to be more than 10:1. By carefully and precisely straightening, the dimensions of part, the dimensions can be within tolerance with no doubt. At last, customer was happy with the reworked parts and willing to have another new project to cooperate with us. Trust our extensive experience in CNC machining services and we can offer good advice to help you get the best quality.     Learn more about residual stress: Stress Marks on the Surface of Plastic Injection Parts ...
index_case_study_view_more
Previously on Case Study we discussed material shrinkage as an important factor to be considered in the design before production. Apart from material shrinkage, there are still far more factors you have to be aware of in your design. That being said, devil is in the details. Especially when designing an assembly part, you have to pay extra attention, or assembly failure can be foreseen. Coating then is a topic worth a discussion.   Coating refers to applying substance to the surface of a part. The purpose of it includes protection, adhesion, decoration and so on. Based on the purpose, there are different types for selection, eg. teflon coating, titanium nitride coating, powder coating. As coating is to add a layer to a part, the dimensions of it will be likely to change.   So, to prevent coating from significantly impacting the function of your part, APPORO offers two tips below for your drawing: 1.) Indicate clearly on your drawing if the dimensions are BEFORE or AFTER surface finish. Take powder coating for example. The thickness typically ranges from 0.10 mm to 0.30 mm, which can hugely affect the dimension of a part. 2.) Take notice of uneven coating situation. Take powder coating as an example again. There are generally three main issues as below which may result in uneven powder coating: • Powder spray is uneven. • The workpiece and the spray gun are too close. • High voltage output instability. Besides, parts with a good path to earth ground but without no appreciable resistance will have better surface quality.     Case Study on Powder Coating Recently APPORO manufactured a batch of avionic bezels for our customers, which were to be assembled with LCDs. When the customer received the bezels, they found some of them fail to fit the LCDs. Initially, we thought the problem was caused by machining method. The bezels were die casting manufactured, so the quality of them would not be the same as those CNC machined. To dig into the problem, our customer sent us an inspection aide, which is of the same design as the assembly LCD. After receiving the inspection aide and looking into it, APPORO figured out that the actual problem was powder coating. Here is our findings:   1.) The distance between two surfaces that needed to be assembled with the LCD was only 0.11 mm. However, there was a step on the inspection aide, the height of which was 0.25-0.27mm. This definitely would have influences on the assembly.   2.) The drawing indicates that all dimensions are prior to finish. As we said previously, the thickness to powder coating is typically around 0.10 mm to 0.30 mm. After coating process, the distance would shrink so as not to fit the LCD well.     How We Improve the Assembly Issue? Because the design of the LCD could not be revised, we could only fix the mold or have an extra process to machine the bezel. However, after detailed reviewing the modification, it was not practical to replace the mold core. Actually, the inlet gates were just located at the bottom edge of bezel. If we modified the mold core, we should have to modify the slide at the same time. In that way, the modification cost would be extremely expensive, almost equal to building another new mold. Eventually, we decided to remove the extra material from the back side after casting but before powder coating.     Remove the extra material to fit the LCD well.       Before(LEFT): Extra material interferes with LCD. The Bezel fails to fit the LCD.    After(RIGHT): The Bezel fits the LCD well after the extra material is removed.       This case fully shows the importance of design. If you need your powder coating on your part, make sure you take the dimension changes from surface treatment into consideration. Need some professional suggestions before production? Contact APPORO now. This is going to be one of the best decisions ever in your life!     More Case Study on Coating: Aluminum Anodizing Coating Failure ...
index_case_study_view_more
It is always exciting to carry out new projects. However, before moving on to the production process, you have to make sure that your design already includes all the factors that might have influences on your parts.   This time, APPORO would like to share with you how material shrinkage happens, and how it can affect your parts.    Shrinkage(*Ref.1) is a physical phenomenon generally happening to molding parts made by plastic injection and die casting. It refers to the volume contraction of polymers or metals during the cooling and rigid step of the solidification processing. This volume contraction of polymers or metals often results in distorted parts and dimension differences. In general, there are three main issues for variation in parts shrinkage as below.       1.) The shrinkage rate around the inlet gate is less than it at far end of the mold cavity due to pressure of plastic flow.     2.) The greater holding pressure, the less shrinkage rate. Shrinkage increases as the part wall thickness increases. In that way, non-uniform wall thickness could result in part warpage due to differential shrinkage.     3.) Glass fiber filled plastic shrink less compared to unfilled materials.           Shrinkage on Plastic Part External Surface         Shrinkage increases as the part wall thickness increases.         Case Study on Plastic Part Shrinkage     Speaking of this issue, APPORO happened to have a relevant case, which can be a concrete example. One of our customers once provided a plastic injection part. According to the original design, the part dimension was between Dia 13.15 / 13.25. However, the measurement turned out to be Dia 13.10 at one end and Dia 13.33 at the other end. The customer therefore was perplexed over the nonconformity and inquired if APPORO could look into the problem and give some feedback.       After examining the part closely, we pointed out two possible factors:     a.) Dia 13.10 was from the shrinkge of material, as different thickness resulted in different shrinkage in dimension, so the part slightly deformed and inner hole dimension changed a little bit.     b.) For off-mould sake, there should be a necessary draft angle, so the conic hole was done.         Then, to help our customer deal with this issue, APPORO proposed 2 manufacturing options as following:     Option 1: Modify the smaller Dia 13.10 into Dia 13.15 & up, in order to match Dia 13.09 tube but keep the other end in Dia 13.33. This could help solve both the shrinkage and the off-mould issue.     Option 2.: In case our customer insisted having the inner hole within tolerance of Dia 13.15/ 13.25, we offered an alternative suggestion. We could produce in the injection finish a small conic hole in Dia 13.00/ Dia 13.20. After injection finish, we would ream out the hole into Dia 13.20 by a secondary finish on the injected finished parts. But in that way, there would be an additional charge for this secondary finish.           Conclusion     At last, we produced the parts based on our customer’s decision and won the trust from our customer. Now we build an intimate business relationship with the customer and constantly have new projects to work with each other.         If you have any related projects in need of professional and holistic advices, APPORO is your best and reliable problem shooter. Contact APPORO and your perception toward perfection will be changed.         *Ref.1: Plastic shrinking rate ...
index_case_study_view_more
As mentioned previously in "Cross Knurling Profile DIN 82-RGV", knurling is a manufacturing process to feature straight, crossed, angled, diamond-like lines or pattern onto the CNC components. Usually, we use DIN 82 knurling specification standard for most CNC machining cases. If diamond knurling is required, we shall use DIN 82-RGE which is featured with diamond-like 30° cross male knurling. Also, we may consider DIN 82-RGV which is featured with cross knurling pattern as an alternative for customized purpose.         Case Study for Diamond Knurling     Recently, one of our customers turned to us because of their oversized parts. The overall length of this shaft on the drawing was supposed to be between 183.10 ~ 183.20 mm. However, our customer found the total length of some parts was up to 183.30 mm, which was beyond the tolerance. We then discussed with our customers and analyzed that the root cause was diamond knurling.         Door Hinge Shaft with Diamond Knurling   According to the shaft photo above, slight plastic deformation happened at the knurled end. Generally speaking, the plastic deformation is related to feed rate and force of knurling wheel on work spindle. After repeated trial and error, we can control the OD of knurling to be within the tolerance .128" +/-.001".         Plastic deformation after diamond knurling at one end       Total length of some parts was beyond the tolerance.       How We Solve The Oversize Situation?   As for the increase of the total length, it also resulted from knurling. To solve this problem, we decided to cut the total length to be lower limit of tolerance, let's say 183.10 mm. After the shafts were knurled at one end, the total length did slightly increase, but were still within the tolerance. According to our machining experience, the increase of total length should be less than 0.05 mm. In summary, regarding this problem, we have two solutions as below:     1.) precisely remove the extra length at the knurled end.     2.) chamfer the knurled end to remove the extra length.         Besides, according to ISO-2768mK(*Ref.1), the tolerance of such length should be +/-0.50 mm. So, the tolerance of the total length on the drawing actually brought much more difficulties for the manufacturing process. All in all, if you have relevant inquiries, we recommend you to send us your drawings first  for technical discussions. Through the discussions, we can find a way to bridge your design and CNC manufacturing together. Trust us and we will turn your design into a real part perfectly!       *Ref.1: See more about ISO-2768 ...
index_case_study_view_more
With recent increase in demand for more ultra precision machining designs for improving performance requirements, we are facing a great challenge in this kind of CNC machining services. Generally speaking, the greatest challenge when we machine these components is part distortion. For instance, assemblies with multiple enormous parts, of which removing up to 80% materials is necessary, have become common in aerospace, automobile, precision instrument industries. These kind of components might have similar appearance features such as thin wall, very long length, etc.   What Is Part Distortion?   Part distortion is defined as the deviation of part appearance from original shape after released from the fixture. In general, distortion could come from several variables such as type of material, inherent residual stresses in bulk material, residual stresses induced from CNC machining, part design, etc. In most of our cases, the dominant factor of part distortion is the inherent residual stresses in the part. If we look into the cause, these inherent residual stresses usually result from different manufacturing processes, i.e. quenching, stretching forging, extrusions, casting, welding, machining, forming, and etc.         Residual stresses induced from CNC machining may cause parts deforming.     How Can I Minimize Part Distortion? Distortion is a common challenge in manufacturing industrial components. The suggestions to minimize or eliminate distortion shows as below:   1.) The length to thickness ratio of the part design is lower than 10:1.   2.) Pre-heat treating the metal part prior to manufacturing for stress relieve. For instance, the general stress relieve condition for AISI 4340 alloy steel is at 650-670°C for 2hrs, slow cooling furnace.   3.) As per our experience of CNC machining service, distortion increases with the cutter size at constant feed, speed, depth of cut and material removal rates.   4.) Considering that WEDM process involves being fully-submerged, it imposes nearly no stress on the metal part.     With optimized manufacturing process flow, we are able to minimizing any deformation on all the CNC machined parts. Also, to select the suitable cutting tools and CNC machining parameters is of utmost importance. Note that the choice of cutting tools size is key to strike the balance between the productivity and geometrical constraints of the component. By the way, you can learn more about:   1.) Larger Corner Radii Reduced CNC Machining Cost   2.) 4 Things That Will Impact Your Manufacturing Costs ...
index_case_study_view_more
Parts after machining, cold rolling and welding usually generate internal residual stresses which may result in serious and unacceptable shrinking or distortion. Whatever the parts are made of metal or plastic. Recently, we are running a CNC machining project of rotor shaft for our Singapore client. At current, this project is still in First Article status. The rotor shaft is part of motor assembly which basically includes a rotor shaft and motor shaft. The motor shaft will be inserted into a deep, accurate, diameter Ø5 H7 (+0.012/-0mm) hole on the rotor shaft. There is a deep slotting cut for enlarging the hole when the parts are assembled. However, after deep slotted, the hole size will be slightly reduced and also out of tolerance which lead to a complaint from our customer. Our customer used pin gauge 5mm to check the hole. When checking, the pin gauge was supposed to  go all the way till depth 18.0mm, but failed.           The rotor shaft shrinking after deep slotting       Root Cause for Shrinking Parts     In the meantime, after inner discussion, we believe that the downsized hole was due to the internal residual stresses. Prior to slotting, we had full inspection that the diameter 5mm pin gauge could go all the way as it is indicated in the drawing. In that way, we list two possible reasons for the situation below:       1.) The drawing says the internal hole is Ø5 H7 x 18mm, and we did machine the hole into 18mm in depth accordingly, even into 18.5mm.   2.) Besides, the internal stress would be very likely to lead the hole to slightly shrinking after slotting. Then, it will be unreasonable to meet the tolerance H7 standard after slotting. We suggest our customer to insert the pin gauge harder. So, it will not be a problem for the pin to go into the internal hole.       In conclusion, as the dimension was machined exactly based on the drawing, we think the situation is taken full control of by us.​Therefore, We recommend our customer to move forward to the mass production.​​       If you have similar design with deep slotting, send your 2D and 3D drawing files to our international team of engineers for a free quote. We look forward to cooperating with you. Please check our RFQ process and send us email.   If you have similar design with deep slotting, send your 2D and 3D drawing files to our international team of engineers for a free quote. We look forward to cooperating with you. Please check our RFQ process and send us email. ...
index_case_study_view_more
Aluminum is usually reactive with water or air to form a stable passive layer of aluminum oxide. Actually, this anti-corrosion protective layer can stop the rest of aluminum metal from oxygenating. Both chemical conversion and anodizing processes are surface treatment to enhance the oxidation process especially for aluminum alloy. In the previous articles, you can learn about:    1.) How to avoid the blotchy and uneven anodizing 2.) Anodizing surface treatment for cosmetic purpose 3.) Anodizing surface can sometimes fail     What is Chemical Conversion?   Sometimes, we use Alodine as an alternative name for chemical conversion coating which applies chromate to the metal substrate. In the past, hexavalent chromium was mostly used in the immersion bath process for coating, but now it has been prohibited by RoHS Directive. Nowadays, trivalent chromium based coating processes are commonly available for commercial application.     Chemical conversion coating:   1.) Creates an anti-corrosive, durable and electrically conductive surface.     2.) Serves a better surface treatment option for aluminum chassis components due to its electrical conductivity, compared with anodizing.   3.) Is a pre-treatment to improve paint adhesion prior to powder coating. The paint can mechanically bond to the conversion coating, but not just sit on top of the surface. Otherwise, the paint will be likely to undergo flaking or delamination from the metal surface.   4.) Can also be a primer prior to anodizing treatment.       We offer MIL-DTL-5541(*Ref.1) chemical conversion coatings which form protective films by chemical reaction with aluminum alloy. Generally speaking, these conversion coatings are categorized by the following types and classes:     Type I: Containing hexavalent chromium. Typically, it appears to be gold or yellow in color, which can be optionally specified as "clear" color (as an alternative to no color). However, Type I chemical conversion coating has been prohibited by RoHS Directive.     Type II: Containing no hexavalent chromium, but trivalent chromium. Typically, it appears to be "clear" color (as an alternative to no color).     Class 1A: Providing increased corrosion resistance and adhesive properties for painted or non painted workpieces.     Class 3: Providing increased corrosion resistance and adhesive properties and maintains electrical conductivity. Color ranges from light to dark yellow or gold.         Parts treated with Chemical Conversion MIL-DTL-5541 Type 1, Class 1A       *Ref.1: See more about MIL-DTL-5541 ...
index_case_study_view_more
A few days ago, we talked about various factors which may affect your manufacturing costs in previous article. In short, material costs are directly relative to part quality and durability. And, surface treatment costs have significantly increased recently due to strictly environmental policy. Apart from the above two factors, there are still others which can affect your manufacturing costs:   3.) Manufacturing Process   Generally speaking, the slower the machining process is, the more precise the machining can be. For example, WEDM(Wire Electrical Discharge Machining) is one of the slowest metal machining process in the world. A series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes cut the profile of bulk material. WEDM is mostly used for stamping die cutting and prototyping which require accuracy and high quality.     Furthermore, the complexity of design plays an important role in manufacturing cost as well. Part with high complexity usually requires cutting-edge machining facility and will increase the cost to your project. Though, the advanced equipments can provide a great machining experience.     4.) Lead Time of Your Project   Lead time can also impact the cost depending on the project. If you need a time effective production run, the manufacturing cost will be higher than it of a regular production. You might wonder what the factors that have impacts on a short lead time project are. Generally speaking, there are usually various necessary procedures prior to part manufacturing, such as preparation of customized jig and tooling. For urgent projects, we will need to rearrange our engineers and machinery equipment to complete the production within required time limit. As a result, extra costs will be added to it. Projects with longer or regular turnaround times can usually cut down to the manufacturing costs  and get lower quotes.      Customized Jigs and Tooling       Get A Quote For Your Next Project   Based on various factors above, a CNC machining service manufacturer will evaluate your project and offer a wide range of manufacturing processes to comply with your requirements. Pls get your 2D and 3D CAD drawing files ready and send them to us to get a free quote.   Learn more about: How To Work With APPORO ...
index_case_study_view_more
  It can be very difficult to accurately predict machining time and cost. Sometimes, to request a quote for your manufacturing project feels like looking for a needle in a haystack. In fact, you can still have an initial concept of cost even without 2D and 3D CAD drawings.     Various factor which have impact on manufacturing cost       What is included in Manufacturing Costs?   Generally speaking, there are various factors which directly have impacts on the cost of CNC machining services, such as material, dimensions, quantity, and methods of manufacturing. Besides, auxiliary processing equipment, such as customized cutting tools, jigs and tooling can also affect the cost of manufacturing project. Although the actual cost seems unpredictable due to the impacts of these factors, there are four basic guidelines for you to evaluate your project in earlier stage:   1.) Material Costs   Nowadays, due to global free trade, material cost is getting more and more transparent. You can get a rough idea of material cost by looking for local price of raw material. Obviously, materials can lead to huge differences in manufacturing costs. But prior to starting to look for material cost, a designer has to determine the material characteristics to the design first, such as hardness, machinability, chemical resistance, heat treatability, rigidity and etc. Regarding material characteristics. We have some suggestions below:   a.) If you need higher hardness for your part, carbon steel or alloy steel with heat treatment will be a suitable choice. However, although carbon steel and alloy steel are usually less expensive compared to tool steel or stainless steel, it is still possible that additional cost will be added  For example, if these materials are too ductile and do not have sufficient machinability, extra machining cost will be charged. Also, heat treatment  is necessary for hardening, and then the cost will inevitably increase.     b.) If the metal part requires anti-corrosion capability, stainless steel, especially 316L would be an excellent choice. Furthermore, carbon steel or alloy steel with plating is also a choice to be considered, and they are more cost-effective, but the plating layer will decide its anti-corrosion capability. Apart from that, material quality is another factor. Parts made of cheaper material may compromise the durability or quality, compared to those made of high-end material. However, parts made of high-end material usually require more manufacturing lead time for good quality.        Various factors may affect your manufacturing costs       2.) Surface Treatment Costs   Surface treatments are generally for cosmetic and anti-rust purpose. In the past, the chemical solution used in most of surface treatment process are usually with toxic hazards. Nowadays, the directive of RoHS has strictly restricted these hazardous substances. At the same time, surface treatment costs are taking up higher proportion of total manufacturing cost due to stricter environment policy. The law enforcement officials take strict control over high-polluting industries. In that way, the investment of pollution abatement equipment is a must and will also increase the manufacturing costs. For a rough estimation, the heavier the weight is, the more the surface treatment will cost.     Surface treatment: Anodizing       Learn more: 4 Thing That Will Impact Your Manufacturing Costs (Part 2) ...
index_case_study_view_more
At APPORO, we specialize in high quality metalwork production with a great price. Apart from general CNC machining services, we also provide rapid prototyping service for customized metal fabrication. With our systematic arrangement of a range of technologies, we are a perfect one stop shop to meet all your prototyping need. Our professional team can help you validate your prototype efficiently and start mass production seamlessly.      What is Prototyping?   Generally speaking, prototyping is one of the best ways to evaluate the function and profile of a part, or to test an innovative design. It is generally used for concept testing or replication by building a real model. With prototyping, we can also estimate the preliminary cost including manufacturing, post-machining, packaging and etc. Our prototyping service can offer a rapid production for producing a real sample according to product design.     In early stage, our skilled engineering team will arrange a  quick production based on the project details to optimize production, such as material, surface treatment, processing method, packaging. Besides, we also specialize in complex assemblies. Our engineering team are good at improving cost effective manufacturing process. Thus, our high quality prototyping services make us a one stop shop for your product.     Prototyping Production Lines   Thanks to our experienced production team, we are able to manufacture prototypes efficiently. Other than that, APPORO has cooperated with other specialists on many industrial projects. Basically, our trans-disciplinary team are capable of production capability below:   1.) Laser Cutting   To be able to use a high power fiber laser beam to cut materials, APPORO owns two laser cutting machines. One is TRUMPF TruLaser 3030 with 3,000 mm x 1,500 mm working range, 20 mm maximum sheet thickness. The other is Mazak SUPER TURBO-X48 with 2,400 mm x 1,200 mm working range, 22 mm maximum sheet thickness. You can look at the short film showing how the laser cutting machine work.   2.) NCT Punch Press(*Ref. 1)   To use various standard punch tools for blanking, piercing, straight edges, different size of holes, our team owns AMADA PEGA-357 Turret Punch Press.     AMADA PEGA-357 Turret Punch Press     3.) Water Jet Cutting   To cut a wide variety of materials by using extremely high pressure jet of water, sometimes, we use a mixture of water and abrasive substance for cutting hard materials. Our team owns an OMAX 55100 JetMachining Center.     OMAX 55100 Water Jet Machine       4.) Wire Cutting   Wire Cut Electrical Discharge Machining, also known as wire-cut EDM,  typically uses a brass wire to cut punching tooling die or metal plate which is too hard to be machined by other methods. Although , wire cutting is the slowest cutting method compare to the other three methods mentioned above, the production tolerance can be down to less than ±5 µm.      In conclusion, with the four kinds of machineries above, we are capable of being a one stop shop to meet all your prototyping need. Interested in cooperating with APPORO for your kickstarting idea? Get your design ready and make your own drawing. Next, send your 2D and 3D drawing files to our international team of engineers for a free quote.   *Ref. 1 See more about NCT(Numerical Control Turret) in Wikipedia ...
index_case_study_view_more
Annealing(*Ref.) is one of the well-known heat treatment process. Commonly used in applications where a component is bent or crimped, it lowers the possibility of metal cracking during the cold-working process.  In APPORO, we provide annealing heat treatment service for customized CNC parts.   A complete annealing process for steel involves: 1.) Heating the metal to its austenitic temperature.   2.) Maintaining the high temperature so as the material can fully form austenitic grain structure within sufficient time.     3.) Slowly cooling down in the furnace to obtain equilibrium micro crystal structure.     After that, the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength of ductile steel will lower down. That is why the annealed metal is much softer and suitable for further cold working, such as bending, stamping, extrusion, rolling or forging.     Case Study about Cable Terminal Annealing   Recently, we are running a CNC machining service project for automobile industrial application. The item is a cable terminal with electrical eyelet, made of free cutting steel 12L14 with blue zinc plating surface treatment. The cable terminals were well machined, zinc plated and inspected by APPORO.  However, our customer rejected the first articles as they cracked when crimped. See the photo below.     Cable Terminal without Annealing     The cable terminal with electrical eyelet is to fit the cable wire, and then crimped for connection purpose. However, although the metal is good for cold working, it usually lacks ductility and is brittle, therefore not preferable for further crimping process. Generally speaking, a perfect crimping requires the metal with softer and more malleable state. In that way, annealing can be the best treatment to solve this situation.     As a result, we sent the cable terminal for annealing prior to zinc plating process. After annealing, a crimping test will be conducted by using a pliers is for quality approval. The photo below shows that the cable terminal is more ductile without any cracks.     Cable Terminal after annealing     We are well experienced with electrical connector due to our CNC machining services production lines. You can visit our official site to have more ideas about our core services. Should you have any inquiry for above items, do not hesitate to send us RFQ for free project review.   *Ref. See more about Annealing in Wikipedia ...
index_case_study_view_more
Computer-aided design(*Ref 1.), also called called CAD, is widely used in most industries to improve the efficiency and quality of design for CNC machining services. It is highly conducive to communication between designer and manufacturer. Also, it serves as a great platform carrying complete information for CNC machining services manufacturers. Because 2D and 3D CAD drawings are easier to read, modify, and create, they are more preferable in CNC machining industries.       Create Your Own CAD Drawing         The Way to Create CAD Drawing   Nowadays, CAD software is widely used  in various fields. For example, automotive, aerospace industries, reverse engineering(*Ref. 2), PCB design, animation design, industrial and architectural design use CAD software quite often. The procedures below show how  CAD software is used to create 2D and 3D CAD drawing:   1.) Create a 3D CAD object in your CAD software Create 2D elevation drafting Form and modify 3D object by extrusion, revolve, sweep, emboss functions   2.) Create 2D print from 3D CAD Start a new DWG drawing file Place a base view of your 3D model on your DWG drawing and then project other views from the base view. Mark detailed but not repetitive dimensions Mark important notices     How to Get CAD Software?   Gradually, CAD programs have become essential and dominate in CNC machining service projects. A well-designed CAD software should be capable of creating both 2D drawing and 3D modeling. Generally, it is usually hard to choose the best modeling software for different market sector. It is because various aspects and the wide range of features are available in these CAD tools. The essential elements of good CAD software are as below:   2D Drawing Tools 3D Modeling Tools Textures Transparency Options Lighting Effects Hatching Photo-realistic Rendering     At present, more and more free CAD software is accessible for personal or professional modeling use. Should you have any questions about CAD software application, do not hesitate to contact us.     *Ref 1. Computer-aided design-Wikipedia   *Ref 2. Reverse Engineering: From Real Component to Print ...
index_case_study_view_more
  Reverse engineering(*Ref), also called back engineering, is to get the design information from the item already made. For CNC machining services, it is to reproduce the item according to the obtained information. Laser scanner, CMM, profile projector, industrial CT scanning are the most powerful measurement tools for reverse engineering.If you are interested in reverse engineering, you can refer to Wikipedia for more understanding about reverse engineering.   Apporo provides reverse engineering service for parts made by CNC machining, stamping, plastic injection, die casting. We use CMM and profile projector to extract the accurate dimensions from the original workpiece. The case below is a CNC machining service project for our USA client who chose reverse engineering for Rotary Tattoo Machine components.     Original Sample of Rotary Tattoo Machine Components         Reverse Engineering Step by Step   1.) To extract the sample dimensions by CMM, profile projector and Venier caliper.   After receiving original samples from USA client, we used CMM, profile projector and venier caliper to extract all the dimensions. Then, all the dimension information were used to create 3D CAD drawing for further CNC machining process. See more about our quality inspection instruments.          Rotary Tattoo Machine - Frame     Material: Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 Surface Finish: Red, Black and Silver Anodizing Type: CNC Milling       Rotary Tattoo Machine - Motor Housing Cap     Material: Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 Surface Finish: Red, Black and Silver Anodizing Type: CNC Milling     2.) From 3D to 2D prints for CNC machine programming   Converting 3D CAD drawing into 2D CAD print is a must for CNC machine programming. A CAM software can both read and output CNC programming code for production from 2D prints. After converting the drawing, we confirmed with our customer by using the 2D CAD prints marked with dimensions and detailed descriptions. A good 2D CAD print of workpiece is supposed to consist of a base view and other necessary views for evaluation with dimensions and important notices marked. After thorough discussions with our client, we reached a consensus to integrate frame components into one part as below.     Reverse Engineering: Rotary Tattoo Machine - Frame       Reverse Engineering: Motor Housing Cap       3.) Move to production   At last, the customized jigs, cutting tools and CNC programming were ready for production arrangement. After CNC machining, the aluminum parts were sent for high quality anodizing treatment.     Frame with Glossy Red Anodizing       Motor Cap with Glossy Black Anodizing         Currently, APPORO is still working closely with our USA client for cases on innovative new design, whilst improving the cosmetic surface with clear machining action. If you have any interesting cases, do not hesitate to contact us. We look forward to cooperate with you.     *Ref Reverse Engineering ...
index_case_study_view_more
In January, we have talked about a new progressive stamping project for making a straight flat actuator of micro switch. In short, the reason why we build a progressive punching mold for production is mainly based on annual demand of the project. Visit our website to check out what a progressive stamping mold is.     Spacing limitation of stamping mold   Regarding micro switch, there are lots of different type of actuators, depending on application, straight flat, out hole, rollover, with blade and roller, etc. The micro switch which our customer required was the simple one with medium lever flat blade. At present, our customer has already approved the FA samples which were perfectly machined as per CAD drawings. However, they were also asking if we could increase the distances from both hole center and radius edge to flat surface. Apart from that, distance from radius edge to flat surface was changed from 0.145" to be 0.166", and the distance from the hole center to flat surface was changed from 0.082" to be 0.103". Check out the modification in the drawing below.    Modification(red marked dimensions) of the micro switch stamping mold      During the punchinging process, the progressive tooling would cut, pierce and bend each of micro switch step by step. No matter how the designer or engineer modified the parts, the features or dimensions should be exactly relative to punching die. As per customer's requirement, the flat pattern of micro switch became wider. In other words, the spacing between each stamping stage would also be  smaller. Moreover, the smaller the spacing was, the smaller the punching die would be.     Optimized spacing between each stamping stage   However, smaller punching die did have negative effects on the lifetime of punching die. In our original design, the spacing was 2.0 mm for saving raw material and also extending the  lifetime of punching die. If the parts width were changed from .145" to .166", the spacing between each stamping stage would be down to less than 1.0 mm. No doubt that the punching die would definitely damage very soon. Thus, considering the above negative effects, our USA client eventually placed another progressive mold order for new design with optimized spacing.      Progressive stamping mold with optimized spacing      We are a professional and reliable stamping, deep drawing mold designer and consultant. Should you have any inquiry or questions, please send us email.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
APPORO is well experienced in precision stamping mold production.  We regard ourselves as a professional manufacturer in fields of deep drawn, progressive stamping, and bending. Recently, a self-service machine industry customer contacted APPORO for these stainless steel micro switch actuators. Meanwhile, they were also looking for an alternative source. This customer’s product encompasses arcade game components, automated payment and cash handling products, gaming machine parts, industrial control devices for on and off-road vehicles, interactive game and kiosk platforms.     If these micro switch actuators are manufactured with NCT machining, laser cutting or bending, the machining cost would be very high. Therefore, the customer inquired if we can provide a less expensive stamping process to manufacture the actuators of the same quality. Finally, we figured out that making a slight change to the material specification would allow the use of progressive stamping.      What is Progressive Stamping?   Progressive stamping is a diversified metal work method including blanking, coining, extruding, forming, bending and lots other methods of modifying raw metal sheet. An automatic feeding system inputs a strip of metal coil through all of the stations of a progressive stamping mold. The final stage of progressive stamping tooling is always a cutoff operation, It is very important that the metal strip accurately moves between stations. The first die is to pierce round holes in the metal strip which are for transferring the components from one station to the next.      A rotary unit of flat actuator made by progressive stamping mold      Back to the project mentioned in the top of this article. We produced prototypes that were within the dimensions spec according to customer's drawing. The two ear holes are especially critical to the functionality of rotating. As a result, the distance from the holes center to the top surface will be the most crucial  dimension. Thanks to our WEDM (Wire Electrical Discharge Machining) partner's support, the piercing die can precisely cut the hole with less than error 0.05 mm position. Testing revealed that operation performance surpassed the expectations. As a result, we can supply the customer with superior quality parts at a competitive price.     Utilizing our SEYI 35 ton single crank press, we manufactured these 0.017" thickness by 0.166" high by 0.827" length stamping within error ±0.005". After deburring, we sent the parts to passivate for increasing corrosion and wear resistance. Finally, our production met all specifications under rigorous quality control. In the future, the annual quantity of this part is estimated up to 50,000 pieces.    For more information about this project, or how our progressive stamping services can economically supply you with precision stainless steel parts, contact us today. ...
index_case_study_view_more
Recently, our US client commented on our latest shipment of CNC milling aluminum anodizing parts. All the part profile dimensions are okay, except that the surface of the part was blotchy and not shiny, sharp as before. Our client tried to wipe a part with alcohol to see if the surface appearance improved, but it did not work. The photo below showed the part surface.    Blotchy Spots on Anodized CNC Aluminum Part Surface      How the blotchy spots happened?   According to our production experience in the past, blotchy spot randomly happened to various batches of aluminum raw material. From raw material to machining procedures, the blotchy spot was not observable till anodizing.     The grain boundaries or dendrites looking blotchy spots might have happened due to uneven current density across the surface of the part. The blotchy spots were with a higher current density than the surrounding area. High current density raised the temperature locally and degraded the surface finish. Chemical reaction during anodizing could also create this kind of blotchy spots.     Uneven Anodizing CNC Machining Aluminum Parts      How to avoid the blotchy and uneven anodizing?   To avoid this situation from happening, we will ask supplier to pre-anodize the aluminum raw material. Then, they will provide us with batches of material free from blotchy mark after anodizing. Please MUST inform us if your workpieces are for customer use or cosmetic surface requirement.     Moreover, you can take a aluminum alloy panel and cut it into several pieces. Then, respectively blast, buff, and polish one piece and leave one with nothing done to it. Black hard anodize all the pieces at the same time and note that all the pieces above will come out differently due to the finishes. Sometimes, pre-treatments above are work and can modify the surface well.   If you are interesting in APPORO's production capability, please visit our official website or send us RFQ for free project reviewing. ...
index_case_study_view_more
Generally speaking, pockets with a depth more than 5 times the smallest corner radius will incur an additional fee to the CNC machining cost. See the spare part of the video camera monitor described below. We will have to use a .250″ diameter flat end mill with a 1.25″ length of cut, when is a very fragile cutter. To avoid the end mill from damaging on occasion means the CNC machining processing will be slow. Furthermore, due to the deflection of such a long small diameter cutter, it is difficult to make the wall perfectly vertical and the corners free of chatter.    CNC machining Inside corner radius .125" with a depth 1.25" of cut      CNC Machining Key Advice   ►Try to keep your radii on inside corners bigger than 1/6th the pocket depth.     What are the procedures involved in CNC machining parts?   The passage below shows how APPORO manufactures customized parts step by step from print to part:   1.) Checking and Confirming Drawings Till today, we already have checked and confirmed more than ten thousand CAD drawings. Discussions will be conducted if any issues occur in this stage:     a.) Quote invitation will be turned down if the part is beyond APPORO's capabilities.     b.) Our customers will receive suggestions if the design needs modifications to be machinable or to reduce to production cost without compromising the quality and functionality.     c.) Our customers will receive a quote with the shortest and possible lead time for delivery.   2.) CNC Programming Our professional CNC programmers use PC-based CAD/CAM software Mastercam for fast and efficient turning/milling. In this stage, we are dedicated to looking for better ways to optimize design for production.   3.) CNC Production Following instructions of CAM software, parts will be step by step well manufactured with CNC milling machine.  Speaking of CNC milling, APPORO are capable of 2 axis, 3 axis, 4 axis and 5 axis machining. From simple dowel pins, shaft to complex CNC turning and milling parts, we can get you covered.     Finally, with more than 30 years of success, we are one of the premier CNC precision machining manufacturers in the world. Send us your parts CAD drawings to get a free quote, and our engineers will review your project to ensure the manufacturability. We will also provide CAD design suggestions to you for better production. ...
index_case_study_view_more
Over the last 10 years, as a professional CNC machining services supplier, APPORO have always strived to get new and high precision CNC turning lathe machines to improve our production capability. Most of our clients are suppliers of various high precision and quality spare parts to their downstream industries. They choose APPORO as their best CNC machining service manufacturer and constantly cooperate with us over the past many years.    CNC Turning Parts @APPORO      Our Capability of CNC Turning   Regarding the production capability of CNC lathe machined parts which are with linear appearance. When CNC machining, the raw material rod (usually made of metal or plastics) will rotate at high RPM. Then, a cutting tool will traverse along X, Y or Z axis motion to manufacture precise dimensions. CNC turning shaft is one of the most common spare parts, which is often used in various market sectors, such as multi-function printer, scanner, driving shaft for torque transmission, etc. Alloy steel with case hardened or carburized for better wearing resistance can meet requirement of high torque transmission purpose.      Raw Material for CNC Turning   We are also an expert of CNC turning screw manufacturing. For example, customized slotted head set screw with flat end is widely used in electronic revenue meter which can perform fine or coarse adjustment. The screw materials we are able to manufacture range from brass C3604, copper C11000, stainless steel 303 304 316L, to aluminum alloy 2011 6061 T6. We are also well experienced in machining customized CNC machined screw made of titanium alloy to meet high corrosion resistance, high strength-to-density ratio requirements.     E Cig CNC Turning Titanium Alloy Main Tube      CNC Turning Titanium Parts   We are proud of our highly precise and reliable machining capability of CNC turning titanium parts. Speaking of CNC turning titanium parts, cutting parameters and cutting fluid do matter to the completion of high quality manufacturing procedures on machining parts made of titanium alloy. The fields our clients are in consist of aerospace, medical instrument, biomedical device, biotechnology and bioengineering or even analytical chemistry industries. As we predicted, that the market demand of titanium turning parts are increasing steadily. Mostly it is because only titanium alloy can meet the requirements of our customers, some of which are extremely critical. Nowadays, titanium alloy turned parts are widely used throughout the world in many of the harshest environments, such as military, aerospace, petroleum industries, either topside and subsea, tunnelling, mining, construction and agricultural industries, where they are subject to both extreme physical conditions and exposure to dust, salt water etc.     Finally, at APPORO, we use powerful 4-axis CNC lathe machines for manufacturing CNC machined parts. You are welcome to visit our official website for more understanding about our CNC production capability and send us inquiry for free project review.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
Chrome plating is a standard option for a bright and shiny looking, usually applied to products of certain hardness, anti-corrosion and anti-wear required. Apart from chrome plating, satin chrome plating serves another fantastic option of modern looking alternatively which features dull and matte surface appearance.     What is Satin Chrome Plating?   Satin chrome plating is widely used for parts of furnitures to create a contemporary metal finish, such as door handles, light fittings, switches. This kind of electroplating technique is processed by depositing a thin layer of chrome onto a electroplated satin nickel coating layer. In the past we usually used sandblasting for the surface,  but now modern satin nickel chemistries have been more preferable as they are fast and reliable plating process.     The photo below shows satin chrome plating(left) compared to shiny chrome plating(right):       Is my CNC part good for Satin Chrome Plating?   Satin chrome plating not only provides some benefits such as corrosion resistance, increased hardness, but also offers an improved final appearance of your CNC parts without pre-sandblasting. It is an effective choice to save production cost without compromising on the surface quality  for your precision parts. For brass parts and carbon steel parts surface treatment, satin chrome plating serves even a better option.     Apart from satin chrome plating, you can also choose black chrome plating as an optimized appearance option. The photo below shows otoscope cone funnel with black chrome plating and shiny chrome plating.       ...
index_case_study_view_more
  What is Electroless Nickel Plating?   Electroless nickel plating (EN) is a layer of nickel-phosphorus alloy on a metal or plastic substrate, and has a better ability of anti-wear, anti-friction and anti-corrosion compared with electroplated nickel. The phosphorus content ranging from 2% to 13% in EN can be categorized into below three types:     1.) Low phosphorus EN:  Widely applied for CNC parts which requires uniform thickness nickel plating both inside and  outside.     2.) Medium phosphorus EN:  Most seen in industrial, electronic applications or decorative purpose. The thicker electroless nickel plating is, the brighter the surface is, vise versa.     3.) High phosphorus EN:  Best corrosion resistance for CNC precision parts which requires ability of against highly corrosive acidic environments. Best surface finish with minimized porosity, nearly pit-free.     Below photo shows workpieces with electroless nickel plating(left) and electroplated nickel(right).       ...
index_case_study_view_more
  So far, most of APPORO’s CNC machining services cases include inner or external thread machining. The reason for CNC machining parts featured with thread is mainly for assembly. However, there are a variety of thread specs for various industrial application purposes. For example, ISO Metric Standard, Unified Thread Standard, National pipe thread, British standard pipe thread, Acme thread, etc. Therefore, there are various methods to inspect the quality of machined thread, such as using three wire method, and thread gauges. For fast and instant measurement, we prefer thread gauges. Generally, thread gauges can be divided into  two types. One is ring gauges for inspecting external thread, and the other is plug gauges for inspecting inner threaded hole. Both types are supplied with Go and No Go gauges to check if the thread does not conform to its allowed tolerance.     Why do we use thread gauge?   Thread gauges can ensure interchangeability of precision machined parts between different manufacturing procedures in CNC precision machined components industry.     After drilling a threaded hole or machining an external thread on precision CNC part, we usually use gauges to instantly check if we manufacture the thread properly and precisely. The photo below shows the two gauges we mainly used at APPORO-CNC:       Plug thread gauge     A plug gauge is for inner thread measurement. As for ISO metric standard, we generally use both 6H and 6G grade for thread inspection. Each plug gauge is with two threaded ends, Go and No Go. This is what we can learn from using a plug gauge:     1.) Go doesn't go: inner threaded hole too small or wrong pitch   Do take notice of this situation! Inner thread being too small or with wrong pitch can result in assembly problem or field failures.     2.) No Go but go: inner threaded hole too big.   You can take Use As It(UAI) action for this situation if the inner thread still work withs mating part without functional issue. But make sure to improve current process to eliminate this issue for long term production.        Ring thread gauge      Ring gauge is for external thread measurement purpose. We generally use both 6h and 6g grade for ISO thread inspection. Each set of ring gauge is with two components, Go and No Go. Similar to using a plug gauge, this is what we can learn from using a plug gauge:     1.) Go doesn't go: external thread too big or wrong pitch Do take notice of this situation! Inner thread being too big or with wrong pitch can result in assembly problem or field failures.     2.) No Go but go: external thread too small.   You can take Use As It(UAI) action for this situation if the inner thread still work with mating part without functional issue. Make sure to current process to eliminate this issue for long term production.      How a thread gauge works?   In general, we use the thread gauge to inspect  the thread of CNC fabricated workpiece. A thread gauge does not reflect on an actual size or measurement from inspection. instead, it only indicates a status which is either acceptable or unacceptable. When a CNC precision manufacturing part passes the thread gauge testing, it means the thread is within the tolerance, vise versa.   If needed, we also accept customized gauges order for both plug gauge and ring gauge. Contact us to get your own thread gauges, and keep your production lines running smooth without incorrect thread fitting. Let us know about your inquiry including thread spec details for prompt machining service. You can also visit Wikipedia for more understanding about screw thread.   --   Reader's Letter:   Hi Steven,   I am a mechanical engineering student. I was going through some case studies on functional gauge and i came across the article on case study of Thread gauge in your website. I was curious to know how much money can be saved using a thread gauge on an average and some of the companies that use these thread gauge to ensure tolerance limit of the product. So could you please give me some insight on these information?.   Thanks and Regards.     APPORO's Reply:   Hi Anirudhan,   Thread gauge is kind of aid for quality inspection, but not for saving production cost from manufacturing. However, to use standard thread gauge for inspection is a must for being a responsible supplier and also the best way to make sure steady thread quality.   For your reference, customized thread gauges which are not commonly used might be at least 3 times to the price of general gauges. The bigger the size of the thread, the more expensive the thread gauge.   Best regards, ...
index_case_study_view_more
Regarding quality inspection, we mostly use vernier scale and micrometer for measuring the dimensions of precision manufacturing CNC parts. As per our policy of IPQC, we are able to read the  measurements much by using vernier scale and micrometer.      What kinds of parts can we use Vernier scale and micrometer to measure?   The answer is "it depends". Both Vernier scale and micrometer have their own limits. For example, Vernier scale and micrometer cannot measure CNC machined complex profile or tiny hollow workpiece with thin wall. For CNC machined part with complex profile, we will recommend to use a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). A CMM can read dimensions in up to six degrees of freedom and its accuracy is down to 0.001 mm. After that, it displays those measurement readings in the mathematical form. You can convert the readings into profiling for reverse engineering purpose.       How to measure tiny and hollow CNC precision parts by micrometer?   To measure a tiny and hollow workpiece by hand tool such as Vernier scale or micrometer is likely to cause deformation of the items but we will be not able to get correct dimensions.     Therefore, to avoid from incorrect readings, we suggest insert a solid mating part inside the tiny and hollow CNC precision part. See below photos show a tiny hollow CNC precision manufacturing dental component. To measure the part, we used a Sylvac S_Mike PRO micrometer made in Swiss with a φ6.5mm measuring anvil. Also, we used a brass CNC turned part machined for transition fitting with workpieces to prevent the part from deformation.      Improved Precision Measurement       The Precision Measurement Readings      Any other way to measure your parts directly and accurately?   Generally speaking, a hand micrometer with measuring anvil of φ6.5 mm is with a measuring force between 5-10N. However, the measuring force 5-10N is large enough to cause deformation of tiny and hollow CNC precision machined parts.     Here is the problem: how to measure tiny and hollow CNC precision parts? An alternative choice is to use a bench table with φ2mm measuring anvil . Smaller measuring anvil is usually with a measuring force between 0.2-1.0N. It is good to measure CNC parts diameter with tolerance less than 5 microns.   Should you have any questions about quality inspection, kindly send us email without hesitation.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
In precision plastics CNC parts machining process, we use plastic rods with precise external diameter for efficiency CNC fabrication.       How to obtain plastic rods?   First, we will inject and press the melted raw plastics into metal mold to form plastic rods with high pressure, and then harden the rods by forced air cooling. These plastic rods can be used for CNC precision manufacturing.       What cause an extrusion plastic rod to develop a crack?   Regarding the cracks in plastic workpieces, four conditions have to be carefully considered during the extruding process: heat, pressure, flow, cooling, and the quality of the material. Recently, we received a batch of PPS plus 40%GF plastic raw material rods from an Australia customer. Unfortunately, we observed lots of internal cracks in the rods when pre-cutting the material into billet before the CNC precision manufacturing process. See below cut parts photos.           This type of cracking caused by internal stress mainly results from cavity working pressure and also forced-air cooling. Also, material quality is another possible factor. Plastics with poor quality is likely to have inner cracks. Sometimes, these cracks can damage the cutting tool when we manufacture plastic machined precision parts. Besides, gas or liquid leakage might happen to the plastic components with cracks inside.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
What is Aluminum Anodizing?   In general, oxidation process is likely to damage or weaken most metal parts. However, the oxidation process for aluminum alloy named aluminum anodizing can increase the ability of strength and anti-corrosion. The anodized parts have to be treated over four major processes: pre-clean, anodizing, dye and seal. You can also read our previous case study to understand more about aluminum anodizing. Today, we are talking about rack marks shown on most of anodized aluminum part. What are rack marks? And, how do they happen? After knowing what rack marks are and how they happen, you also have to know how to make the marks invisible.     Why scratch-like marks on my aluminum parts?   Have you ever seen the scratch-like marks inside the hole or on the thread of the CNC aluminum milling parts? We call the scratch-like mark a rack mark in the anodizing process. We use the customized jig for holding aluminum part as a conductor between electrode and CNC machined aluminum part for anodizing. Once anodizing process is completed, the operator will remove the aluminum parts from the tight holding jigs. Therefore, there will be a small area without anodizing layer surrounded by the holding jigs, just as the same as the marks shown in below photo.    Rack Marks on Anodized Aluminum Parts        How to minimize the rack marks on the anodized machined parts?   Frankly speaking, there is no way to remove the rack marks. But, you can make it invisible or minimize the rack marks in anodizing process. For example, you can use threaded rods or bolts into existing threaded holes for contact purpose. Or, you could ask the anodizing operator to squeeze the holding jigs onto the parts which will be covered or invisible in future application. Actually, some of our important clients did ask us to squeeze the holding jigs onto the noted position of the CNC aluminum parts.       When you are designing an aluminum part which needs anodizing identifying on your drawing where the part can be racked will be helpful for the anodizer. If you have any project about CNC machining aluminum parts, you are welcome to send us RFQ for free project review. ...
index_case_study_view_more
After CNC fabrication processing, the machined workpiece is usually with smooth metal surface. However, to better grip with hands/fingers, or for plastic injection insert and decoration purpose, it is common to have parts knurled. Knurling is a manufacturing process to feature straight, crossed, angled, diamond-like lines or pattern onto the CNC components.  Sometimes, we also machine multiple shallow slots or polygonal for same  purposes. DIN 82 is most commonly used knurling spec in CNC machining services. Each subcategory of it then corresponds to a specific knurling feature. Take DIN 82-RGV, DIN 82-RBR/RBL, and DIN 82-RGE for example. DIN 82-RGV is with cross knurling pattern. DIN 82-RBR/RBL is with right/left hand spiral. DIN 82-RGE is with diamond-like 30° cross male knurling.     Poor Cross Knurling Quality   Our customer once sent us the original sample made of stainless steel 304. The sample manufactured by their previous local prototyping manufacturer was with poor knurling surface quality. See the shorter item in below photo. The dimensions of sample are precise and within the required tolerance, but the knurls are dissatisfactory. They are with improper length, too light pattern. Also, these knurls lack  lead-in chamfers around the threaded holes.    Cross Knurling DIN 82-RGV Compare Zoom-in      Obviously, the appearance of the shorter part does not look good because of the improper length of knurling. However, a customized full length cross knurling tool can solve this issue. Regarding the pattern, it was too light probably due to the CNC programming or  CNC lathe limitation, but we are able to conquer this issue as well. Moreover, based on our techniques , the lead-in chamfers around threaded hole are not a hard task for APPORO either.     Improved knurling   Therefore, we ordered a customized full length knurling tool to meet the required pattern spec of DIN 82-RGV 0.8. Apart from that, the automatic Japaneses CNC turn-mill machines also helped improve the quality of surface and dimensions. Above photo shows the longer workpiece machined by APPORO has the better knurling pattern.     We can offer CNC precision parts with several types of knurling surface, such as straight knurling, cross knurling, and diamond-like knurling. We are also capable of knurling on plastic precision parts. If you have related knurling inquiries for your parts, kindly send us RFQ for free project reviewing without hesitation.     ...
index_case_study_view_more
Aluminum anodizing is to produce oxide layer on the surface of aluminum parts to improve the capability of anti-corrosion. In previous case study, we discussed this topic once. This time, we will be talking about aluminum anodize coating failure. The anodizing failures of  an aluminum CNC machining part generally fall into some of the following categories:   1.) exposure to chlorine based solution   Chlorine is very reactive and can cause pitting corrosion by removing the oxide layer. Be careful if Chloride ion is in a sulfuric acid electrolyte exceeding a critical level of 80 ppm chloride. Please also notice that chlorine based solvents are for degreasing which may also cause acid pitting.    2.) exposure to extremely acid or alkaline solution   Solution lower than pH 4 or higher than pH 9 is able to break down the oxide layer and make the underlying aluminum susceptible to corrosion. Generally speaking, completely rinsing the anodized aluminum part is the most satisfactory method of eliminating this problem.     Blind holes v.s. anodizing failure   The anodizing failure rate can be high if there are blind holes in your CNC aluminum parts. When the high acidity anodization solution is not well removed from the blind holes, the liquid will flow out and damage the surface of CNC aluminum parts, resulting in flaking-off and spots on their anodized surface.     Below photo shows an aluminum CNC milled part etched by acid residues. The white, dirty, flaking off oxide powder surrounding the threaded hole gradually gets worse if no further action taken to fix the issue.     Aluminum anodize failure because of acid      Preventive action against failure of aluminum anodizing   As described above, rinsing and cleaning the blind hole on the CNC aluminum anodized part is the best way to remove acid solution. It is a MUST to take these preventive actions  against anodizing failure. Should you have any questions about aluminum anodizing or other RFQ, feel free to send us RFQ for project reviewing.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
  Residual stress is an inherent force resulting from plastic injection molding process. The stress mark occurs when the molten polymer is cooled and shaped. Sometimes, residual stress is purposely formed to obtain desirable characteristics, such as in oriented PET films and bottles. However, in most cases, these stresses could be potential problems to cause field failures.     How does the stress mark occurr to a plastic part?   Problems caused by residual stress in plastic parts generally fall into some of the following categories:   1.) Cracking:   Cracking under normal load conditions can be the strong evidence of internal residual stress. You will observe lots of micro cracks on the product surface.    2.) Distortion:   Distortion occurs when plastic parts with excessive residual stress go through post-processing thermal cycles, such as sterilization, ultrasonic welding or heat sealing. Moreover, products exposed to various ambient temperatures in transportation or warehousing are likely to distort as well. The parts may warp or shrink, leading to unpleasant packaging failures.    3.) Aggravation of optical properties:   Mark caused by residual stress changes refractive index, introducing optical distortion. This can be harmful for the surface appearance of products such as bottles, windows, plastic lenses and monitor screen.     Generally speaking, manufacturing a flawless plastic injection part requires high quality polymer powder, proper temperature, pressure and time control. Below is a photo of precision thin-walled plastic part made of polypropylene. It shows how the residual stress causes mark on plastic part by too much holding time control. In this case, we built a family shared mold, 1-cavity for each part. We intended to do the injection with superior quality for the other item, so we increased injection pressure to up to 80 kgs/ sq.cm, holding pressure till 10 seconds. But, we observed a obvious white stress mark on the surface without warning which may induce field failures.     Residual stress causes damage mark to the plastic injection part      How do we avoid stress marks on plastic injection parts similar to the case mentioned above? This part was damaged that it caused cracks or stress marks on its surface. These cracks and marks might arise from different cooling rates, inconsistent temperature or flow rate, material contaminants, mechanical loading, thermal cycling during transport and storage, inadequate or non-uniform annealing, and sharp corners or protrusions designs. During troubleshooting, we dealt with the issues one by one.  Finally, we found the best way to avoid the cracks or marks on precision injection plastics parts is to reduce the duration of holding pressure down to 2 to 3 seconds.     Check out our previous plastic injection project on our website! Diagnose the residual stress before it ruins your parts. Feel free to send us your RFQ for project review.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
When it comes to aluminum surface treatments, we recommend anodizing mainly for cosmetic appearance purpose. There are generally two types of aluminum anodizing. One is conventional anodizing (MIL-A-8625 Type II), the other one is hard coat anodizing (MIL-A-8625 Type III). When a part is anodized, the anodizing does not only build up the 0.005 - 0.0008 mm thick aluminum oxide on the surface. It also penetrates into the raw material to the same depth.     What is aluminum anodizing?   The anodizing layer is proceeded with the direct current through an electrolytic solution, with an aluminum object serving as an anode. Aluminum anodizing is to build up the thickness of oxide layer on its surface to improve the capability of anti-corrosion and wear. After the anodizing process, the aluminum oxide layer is with improved adhesion of paint primers and glues on the bare metal.     The common method, Type II anodizing, applies an aluminum oxide layer that is generally 0.005 - 0.025 mm thick. In comparison to Type II anodizing, Type III anodize, as known as hard coating, can do 0.050 mm (+/-20%) thickness. Besides, the hard anodized items usually have bronze, gray or black finish. The color can vary depending on the purity of the aluminum substrate. Furthermore, hard anodizing will make the aluminum alloy more resistant to corrosion. The thicker an oxidized layer is, the more effectively it can protect the finished part from moisture, oxygen, and other factors.     The quality of aluminum anodize coating   As time goes by, the quality of anodized layer might get worse. Not only anodized parts stored in high salty and humidity environment affects the quality of anodized layer, but poor quality of anodize solutions used in coating process also poses a negative effect. As for good aluminum anodizing, the surface appearance should be glossy and silk like.     Black Anodizing on CNC Milling Part    Below photo shows the comparison of poor quality anodizing(left) and good one(right). We can easily tell the difference based on color, surface quality. In general, the defected anodizing one is with dirty grey, slightly brown color, scratched surface.    Different Surface Appearance after Anodizing      Teflon impregnating after anodizing   Instead of anodizing, we can also provide Teflon impregnation service. Our Teflon impregnation process produces a continuous layer of Teflon bonded to the anodized part surface. The Teflon layer is to offer significantly great lubricity and corrosion resistance.    Teflon Impregnated Aluminum Part with black hard anodizing      Send us email if you have any questions about surface treatment of the CNC machining aluminum parts. Also feel free to send us RFQ for free project reviewing.   ...
index_case_study_view_more
There are many ways for thread drilling in metalworking of CNC machining services. As for external threads, thread rolling and thread dies are most commonly used. As for inner thread machining, we generally use taper/second/bottoming three steps thread tapping or fluteless tapping.     Frankly speaking, to drill a deep and small inner thread on high hardness or malleability raw material is a difficult mission. Many factors should be considered before drilling. For example, hole diameter, the forming speed and types of drill bet on the responses: torque, hardness, feeding rate, and thrust force of the form tapping process. Fluteless tap is the one of the best toolings for machining inner thread on CNC turning machines.      Thread machined by using fluteless tap      What is the Advantage of Fluteless tap?   Fluteless tapping is also known as form tapping. The screw thread is formed by plastic deformation of a working metal under high level of torque. And, it is well monitored operation processing to avoid tool bit breakage when the thread is being machined.     Fluteless tapping can form a perfect screw thread without wasting any material in a pre-drilled hole. Besides, it is kind of opposite style to external thread rolling method. The inner screw thread machined by fluteless tap is with higher strength and less error of pitch diameter. So, we mainly use fluteless tap machining inner thread for aluminum parts, brass parts and zinc parts when we adopt CNC precision manufacturing.        Thread Machining in Industrial Application   Here, let's take automobile industrial application as an example. The thread features of mechanical components help assemble and dismantle quickly and precisely. The engine heads manufactured with non-ferrous metals have an excellent capacity to deform and maintain an acceptable mechanical strength. As a result, thread formed by fluteless tapping can guarantee perfect full threading and high tensile strength.    Take a closer look of the inner thread of cut part      However, inner thread machined by fluteless taps have some problems. For example, the appearance of a split crest on the top of the thread. This situation directly relevant to the initial pre-drill hole diameter. In addition, the smaller the inner diameters are, the slighter the split crest on the top of the screw thread can be after fluteless tap forming.    Split crest on the thread      Feel free to ask us if any questions about fluteless tap on CNC precision machining parts. Pls send us your RFQ for free project reviewing.   ...
index_case_study_view_more